Priorización de enfermedades virales zoonóticas en la interfaz de cerdos silvestres, cerdos domésticos y seres humanos

Diana Benavides-Arias, Diego Soler-Tovar, .

Palabras clave: ecología, Sus scrofa, virus, zoonosis

Resumen

Introducción. Para entender la ecología de las enfermedades es necesario comprender los agentes patógenos en la interfaz de vida silvestre y ganado. Los cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa) constituyen un problema sanitario cuando se trata de prevenir y controlar las enfermedades zoonóticas, pues en ocasiones sus poblaciones son portadores de agentes infecciosos transmisibles a los cerdos domésticos y a otras especies animales, incluidos los seres humanos.
Objetivo. Priorizar las enfermedades zoonóticas en la interfaz de cerdos silvestres, animales domésticos y seres humanos.
Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó el método de priorización semicuantitativa basado en 27 criterios sustentados en publicaciones recientes, los cuales se clasificaron en las siguientes cinco categorías con base en la etiología viral: epidemiología (ocho), prevención y control (tres), economía y comercio (cuatro), salud pública (nueve) y sociedad (tres). A cada criterio se le adjudicó un coeficiente entre 0 y 7 de acuerdo con su impacto medido con base en la información científica (suma total de 189). La información sobre los criterios para las nueve enfermedades virales analizadas se recolectó mediante la revisión de 81 fuentes publicadas entre 1977 y 2015.
Resultados. Las tres enfermedades con mayor puntaje y potencial zoonótico fueron la influenza porcina (133), la hepatitis E (123) y la infección por hantavirus (103), y la mayor puntuación se observó en los criterios de epidemiología y salud pública.
Conclusión. Los métodos semicuantitativos de priorización son una fuente de información para la toma de decisiones, pero su utilización es poco frecuente en los países en desarrollo por la falta de datos de vigilancia en salud pública. El control de las enfermedades que afectan tanto a los seres humanos como a los animales silvestres, requiere el desarrollo de estrategias que reduzcan la transmisión de patógenos de estos a los animales domésticos y a los seres humanos.

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  • Diana Benavides-Arias Semillero de Investigación Una Salud, Programa de Medicina Veterinaria, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
  • Diego Soler-Tovar Grupo de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia

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Cómo citar
Benavides-Arias, D., & Soler-Tovar, D. (2016). Priorización de enfermedades virales zoonóticas en la interfaz de cerdos silvestres, cerdos domésticos y seres humanos. Biomédica, 36(Sup2), 56-68. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v36i0.2950
Publicado
2016-08-01
Sección
Artículos originales