Urticaria papular y sus agentes causales en Colombia

Ana Milena Lozano, Juan Felipe López, Josefina Zakzuk, Elizabeth García, .

Palabras clave: urticaria, insectos, Aedes, Culex, Ctenocephalides, hipersensibilidad

Resumen

La urticaria papular es una enfermedad alérgica causada por la picadura de insectos, la cual predomina en el trópico. El objetivo de esta revisión fue profundizar en sus aspectos epidemiológicos e inmunológicos, particularmente con base en datos publicados en Latinoamérica.
Se hizo una revisión no sistemática mediante la búsqueda electrónica de artículos sobre la epidemiología de la urticaria papular, las características entomológicas de los agentes causales y los mecanismos inmunológicos asociados.
Según los diversos reportes de centros médicos de Latinoamérica la urticaria papular es frecuente; el único estudio de prevalencia publicado indica que afecta a una cuarta parte de los niños escolares de Bogotá. Hay información sobre la relación causal entre la exposición domiciliaria a la pulga, la pobreza y la urticaria papular en Bogotá, una ciudad representativa de las altitudes andinas. No hay estudios que indaguen directamente sobre los insectos causales en zonas cálidas, aunque se sospecha clínicamente de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Culex quinquefasciatus. En cuanto a su patogenia, se destaca la participación de mecanismos celulares que involucran las células colaboradoras Th2, lo cual explica que sea una condición de hipersensibilidad retardada. El papel de la inmunoglobulina E (IgE) en la urticaria papular no está tan claro. Se desconocen los antígenos derivados de los insectos que causan la enfermedad, aunque se plantea que existen moléculas comunes de reacción cruzada entre los insectos, tales como el alérgeno Cte f 2 en la pulga, y sus homólogos en los mosquitos.
La urticaria papular es una condición frecuente en Latinoamérica que debe investigarse en profundidad. La caracterización inmunológica de los componentes moleculares que causan esta condición puede resolver interrogantes sobre su etiología y su patogenia.

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  • Ana Milena Lozano Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia
  • Juan Felipe López Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia
  • Josefina Zakzuk Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia
  • Elizabeth García Sección de Alergología, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia

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Cómo citar
Lozano, A. M., López, J. F., Zakzuk, J., & García, E. (2016). Urticaria papular y sus agentes causales en Colombia. Biomédica, 36(4), 632-645. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v36i4.3258

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2016-12-01
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