Papel de los anticuerpos antiplaquetarios en la infección viral: una revisión sistemática de la literatura

Yenny M. Montenegro-Medina, Luz Aída Rey-Caro, Jurg Niederbacher, Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega, Fredi Alexander Díaz-Quijano, Luis Ángel Villar-Centeno, .

Palabras clave: virosis, anticuerpos, plaquetas, trombocitopenia, humanos

Resumen

Introducción. La trombocitopenia es un fenómeno frecuente en las infecciones virales. Uno de los mecanismos propuesto como posible explicación de su desarrollo es la destrucción plaquetaria periférica mediada por anticuerpos antiplaquetarios.
Objetivo. Revisar los resultados de los trabajos originales que existen en la literatura sobre infección viral y anticuerpos antiplaquetarios en humanos, y su efecto sobre el recuento total de plaquetas.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una búsqueda en PubMed empleando la combinación de términos: "viral infection (OR Virus diseases) AND antibody antiplatelet (OR thrombocytopenia); y antibody antiplatelet AND HIV (OR Measles, OR Dengue, OR Chickenpox OR varicella, OR Epstein Barr, OR Mumps, OR Rubella". Se obtuvieron 218 referencias, de las cuales, 65 correspondían al objetivo de la revisión.
Resultados. En la búsqueda se encontró que la trombocitopenia mediada por anticuerpos antiplaquetarios se ha documentado en infecciones virales por VIH, sarampión, dengue, varicela-zóster, Epstein-Barr, parotiditis y rubéola. La presencia de anticuerpos antiplaquetarios en infecciones virales por VIH, virus de Epstein-Barr y dengue, se ha asociado con la presencia de la trombocitopenia y con la gravedad de la enfermedad.
Conclusiones. Aunque la aparición de anticuerpos antiplaquetarios no se considera el único mecanismo que explica la trombocitopenia desarrollada en las infecciones virales mencionadas, de acuerdo con la literatura científica disponible, su presencia se asocia con la gravedad de la trombocitopenia y con potenciales implicaciones clínicas en los pacientes.

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  • Yenny M. Montenegro-Medina Grupo de Epidemiología Clínica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia
  • Luz Aída Rey-Caro Grupo de Epidemiología Clínica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia
  • Jurg Niederbacher Grupo de Epidemiología Clínica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia
  • Ruth Aralí Martínez-Vega Grupo de Epidemiología Clínica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia
  • Fredi Alexander Díaz-Quijano Grupo de Epidemiología Clínica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia
  • Luis Ángel Villar-Centeno Grupo de Epidemiología Clínica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia

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Cómo citar
1.
Montenegro-Medina YM, Rey-Caro LA, Niederbacher J, Martínez-Vega RA, Díaz-Quijano FA, Villar-Centeno L Ángel. Papel de los anticuerpos antiplaquetarios en la infección viral: una revisión sistemática de la literatura. biomedica [Internet]. 1 [citado 29 de noviembre de 2020];31(1):35-3. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/334
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