Expresión diferencial en placenta de beta-defensinas humanas y detección de variantes alélicas en el gen DEFB1 de madres positivas para VIH-1

Wbeimar Aguilar-Jiménez, Wildeman Zapata, María Teresa Rugeles, .

Palabras clave: beta-defensinas, placenta, VIH-1, inmunidad innata, transmisión vertical de enfermedad infecciosa

Resumen

Introducción. Las bajas tasas de infección en neonatos nacidos de madres seropositivas para el VIH-1 resaltan la existencia de mecanismos de defensa natural en la interfase materno-fetal. Las beta-defensinas humanas inhiben la replicación del VIH-1 in vitro y sus polimorfismos están asociados con la resistencia o susceptibilidad al VIH-1.
Objetivo. Comparar los niveles de expresión de ARNm de beta-defensinas humanas en placentas de madres seropositivas y en seronegativas para determinar si la infección por VIH-1 induce factores antivirales que pudieran proteger a los bebés de la transmisión del VIH-1.
Materiales y métodos. Los transcritos de HBD-1, 2 y 3 se cuantificaron por PCR en tiempo real y las variantes A692G/G1654A/A1836G del gen DEFB1 se evaluaron por secuenciación.
Resultados. Los niveles de transcritos de HBD-1 fueron significativamente mayores, y los de HBD-3 fueron menores en placentas de madres seropositivas en comparación con los controles. Además, la presencia simultánea de los genotipos A692G A/G y A1836G G/G se asoció con alta expresión de HBD-1 en toda la población estudiada y la variante A692G estuvo en desequilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg en los bebés nacidos de madres seropositivas.
Conclusión. Los resultados contrastantes de los niveles de HBD se deben, probablemente, a estímulos virales y sugieren que el VIH-1 induce una expresión diferencial de beta-defensinas humanas en placenta y que estas proteínas podrían estar involucradas en la protección contra el VIH-1, al menos, en las etapas tempranas del embarazo. Sin embargo, no fue posible asociar estos hallazgos con la protección contra la transmisión vertical del VIH-1, puesto que ninguno de los bebés adquirió la infección.

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  • Wbeimar Aguilar-Jiménez Grupo Inmunovirología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Wildeman Zapata Grupo Inmunovirología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • María Teresa Rugeles Grupo Inmunovirología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

Citas

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Cómo citar
Aguilar-Jiménez, W., Zapata, W., & Rugeles, M. T. (1). Expresión diferencial en placenta de beta-defensinas humanas y detección de variantes alélicas en el gen DEFB1 de madres positivas para VIH-1. Biomédica, 31(1), 44-54. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v31i1.335

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