Reconociendo el virus del chikunguña

Eliana Patricia Calvo , Edwin Darío Archila, Lady López, Jaime Eduardo Castellanos, .

Palabras clave: virus del chikunguña/patogenicidad, arbovirus, artritis, epidemiología

Resumen

El virus de chikunguña (CHIKV) es un Alfavirus perteneciente al grupo denominado del Viejo Mundo; estos son virus artritogénicos que causan una enfermedad febril caracterizada por artralgias y mialgias. Aunque la muerte por CHIKV es poco frecuente, la enfermedad puede llegar a ser incapacitante y generar un amplio espectro de manifestaciones atípicas, como complicaciones cardiovasculares, respiratorias, oculares, renales y dérmicas, entre otras. Cuando el dolor articular persiste por tres o más meses, da lugar a la forma crónica de la enfermedad denominada reumatismo inflamatorio crónico poschikunguña, el cual es la principal secuela de la enfermedad. Se considera que este virus no es neurotrópico, sin embargo, puede afectar el sistema nervioso central y generar secuelas graves y permanentes, principalmente, en niños y ancianos.
En África, Asia y Europa se habían reportado anteriormente brotes epidémicos por CHIKV, pero solo hasta finales del 2013 se documentó la introducción del virus a las Américas; desde entonces, el virus se ha propagado a 45 países o territorios del continente y el número de casos acumulados ascendió a cerca de dos millones en dos años.
Esta revisión describe de manera general la biología molecular del virus, sus manifestaciones clínicas, su patogénesis y las principales complicaciones posteriores a la infección. Además, reúne la información de la epidemia en Colombia y el continente americano publicada entre el 2014 y el 2020.

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Cómo citar
1.
Calvo EP, Archila ED, López L, Castellanos JE. Reconociendo el virus del chikunguña. biomedica [Internet]. 29 de junio de 2021 [citado 18 de septiembre de 2021];41(2):353-7. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/5797

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2021-06-29
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