Efectos indirectos de la pandemia por SARS CoV-2 en la prevalencia de lactancia materna: modelación de su impacto

Álvaro Jácome, Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela, Nayide Barahona , .

Palabras clave: lactancia materna, infecciones por coronavirus, prevalencia, evaluación del impacto en la salud, pandemias

Resumen

Introducción. La lactancia materna tiene un efecto protector frente a infecciones respiratorias y diarreicas agudas. Hay efectos psicológicos y sociales por el aislamiento físico en la población en el grupo materno-infantil.
Objetivo. Evaluar el eventual impacto en la mortalidad infantil de la disminución en la prevalencia de la lactancia materna durante el 2020 a causa del aislamiento físico por la pandemia del SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) en Colombia.
Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó el enfoque de riesgo atribuible poblacional, teniendo en cuenta la prevalencia de la lactancia materna y su potencial disminución asociada con las medidas de aislamiento físico y el riesgo relativo (RR) de la asociación entre la lactancia materna exclusiva y el efecto de la aparición de infecciones agudas en el crecimiento (peso para la altura) de niños menores de cinco años mediante un programa de modelamiento matemático.
Resultados. Se registró un aumento del número casos de detención del crecimiento en el grupo etario de 6 a 11 meses de 11,39 % al disminuir en 50 % la prevalencia de la lactancia materna, así como un mayor número de casos por diarrea en los cinco primeros meses a partir del 5 % (5,67 %), y un incremento en el número de muertes en menores de 5 años (9,04 %) al disminuirse en 50 % la prevalencia de la lactancia materna.
Conclusiones. Se registró un impacto en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil a corto y mediano plazo al disminuir la prevalencia en la lactancia materna. Como política pública en salud, deben mantenerse las estrategias actuales de atención materno-infantil para disminuir riesgos en la población infantil.

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Cómo citar
1.
Jácome Álvaro, Castañeda-Orjuela C, Barahona N. Efectos indirectos de la pandemia por SARS CoV-2 en la prevalencia de lactancia materna: modelación de su impacto. biomedica [Internet]. 15 de octubre de 2021 [citado 26 de enero de 2022];41(Sp. 2):118-29. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/5917

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2021-10-15
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