Cyclospora cayetanensis: biología, distribución ambiental y transferencia

Leonor Chacín-Bonilla, Fernando Barrios, .

Palabras clave: Cyclospora, ciclosporosis, biología, ecología, revisión.

Resumen

Cyclospora cayetanensis es un protozoo apicomplexa que ha emergido como un patógeno importante causante de diarrea endémica y epidémica en el mundo. En los países industrializados, el parásito se ha reconocido como agente causal de diversas epidemias asociadas, principalmente, con alimentos importados de áreas endémicas. En los países en vías de desarrollo, la ciclosporosis humana está ampliamente distribuida y, en la población general, se han descrito tasas de infección que varían de 0 % a 41,6 %. Sin embargo, la epidemiologia, biología y ecología de C. cayetanensis permanecen poco conocidas. Su ciclo de vida no está totalmente caracterizado y parece requerir un huésped único, el humano, para completarse. El papel que los animales puedan desempeñar como reservorios naturales del parásito permanece sin determinar.
Se tiene poca información sobre la distribución ambiental de C. cayetanensis y los vehículos de transmisión del ambiente a los humanos. El agua, los alimentos y los suelos contaminados pueden actuar como vehículos de diseminación del coccidio. Permanecen incertidumbres significativas sobre el parásito, que reflejan la necesidad de continuar los esfuerzos de investigación en diversas áreas, incluyendo su biología básica y distribución ambiental.

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  • Leonor Chacín-Bonilla Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela
  • Fernando Barrios Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela

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Chacín-Bonilla L, Barrios F. Cyclospora cayetanensis: biología, distribución ambiental y transferencia. biomedica [Internet]. 1 [citado 29 de noviembre de 2020];31(1):132-43. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/344
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