Efecto del entrenamiento con intervalos de gran intensidad comparado con el entrenamiento continuo de intensidad moderada en el consumo máximo de oxígeno y la presión arterial en hombres sanos: estudio clínico aleatorio

Víctor Hugo Arboleda-Serna, Yuri Feito, Fredy Alonso Patiño-Villada, Astrid Viviana Vargas-Romero, Elkin Fernando Arango-Vélez, .

Palabras clave: entrenamiento con intervalos de gran intensidad, presión sanguínea, ejercicio, capacidad cardiovascular, ensayo clínico controlado aleatorio

Resumen

Introducción. El ejercicio aeróbico incrementa la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, considerada como factor de protección frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares. El entrenamiento con intervalos de gran intensidad (High Intensity Interval Training, HIIT) podría causar mayores incrementos en la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria comparado con el entrenamiento continuo de intensidad moderada, aunque la información actual no es concluyente.
Objetivo. Comparar los efectos del entrenamiento con intervalos de gran intensidad de bajo volumen y del entrenamiento continuo de intensidad moderada, en el volumen
máximo consumido de oxígeno (VO2max), la presión arterial sistólica y la presión arterial diastólica, durante ocho semanas en hombres sanos entre los 18 y los 44 años de edad.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un ensayo clínico controlado con asignación al azar. Se incluyeron 44 voluntarios, 22 a entrenamiento con intervalos de gran intensidad y 22 a uno continuo de intensidad moderada. Ambos grupos hicieron 24 sesiones en tapiz rodante. El primer grupo completó 15 cargas de 30 segundos (90-95 % de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima y, el segundo hizo 40 minutos continuos (65-75 % de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima).
Resultados. El análisis dentro de cada grupo mostró un aumento en el volumen máximo consumido de oxígeno de 3,5 ml/kg por minuto (intervalo de confianza, IC95% 2,02 a 4,93; p=0,0001) con el entrenamiento con intervalos de gran intensidad, y de 1,9 ml/kg por minuto (IC95% -0,98 a 4,82; p=0,18) con el continuo de intensidad moderada. Sin embargo, las diferencias entre grupos no fueron estadísticamente significativas (1,01 ml/kg por minuto; IC95% -2,16 a 4,18; p=0,52). El entrenamiento continuo de intensidad moderada generó una mayor reducción en la presión arterial sistólica, comparado con el de intervalos de gran intensidad (mediana: 8 mm Hg; p<0,001). Por último, no se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos en la presión arterial diastólica.
Conclusiones. Los resultados no evidenciaron diferencias en el efecto sobre el VO2máx con un protocolo de entrenamiento con intervalos de gran intensidad de bajo volumen, en comparación con el continuo de intensidad moderada. Por el contrario, con este último, la reducción en la presión arterial sistólica fue mayor que con el de intervalos de gran intensidad.

El estudio está registrado en clinicaltrials.gov, código: NCT02288403.

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  • Víctor Hugo Arboleda-Serna Grupo de Investigación en Actividad Física para la Salud, Instituto de Educación Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Yuri Feito Department of Exercise Science and Sport Management, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA
  • Fredy Alonso Patiño-Villada Grupo de Investigación en Actividad Física para la Salud, Instituto de Educación Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Astrid Viviana Vargas-Romero Grupo de Investigación en Actividad Física para la Salud, Instituto de Educación Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Elkin Fernando Arango-Vélez Grupo de Investigación en Actividad Física para la Salud, Instituto de Educación Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

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Cómo citar
Arboleda-Serna, V. H., Feito, Y., Patiño-Villada, F. A., Vargas-Romero, A. V., & Arango-Vélez, E. F. (2019). Efecto del entrenamiento con intervalos de gran intensidad comparado con el entrenamiento continuo de intensidad moderada en el consumo máximo de oxígeno y la presión arterial en hombres sanos: estudio clínico aleatorio. Biomédica, 39(3), 524-536. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.4451
Publicado
2019-09-01
Sección
Artículos originales