Malaria en humanos por infección natural con Plasmodium knowlesi

Edgar Martínez-Salazar, Alberto Tobón-Castaño, Silvia Blair, .

Palabras clave: malaria/epidemiología, Plasmodium knowlesi, infección, humanos

Resumen

El primer caso informado de transmisión natural de Plasmodium knowlesi en humanos se publicó en 1965. En el sureste de Asia la presentación atípica de casos de malaria, tanto por cambios en la distribución de las especies diagnosticadas de Plasmodium, como por su morfología, motivó diversos estudios que han confirmado la infección en humanos por este plasmodio que infecta naturalmente
distintas especies de simios, que son endémicos de las selvas de esta región.
Los estudios recientes sugieren que la malaria por P. knowlesi no es una enfermedad emergente en humanos sino que no estaba siendo diagnosticada, debido a la similitud morfológica de este plasmodio con P. malariae y P. falciparum, lo cual dificulta su reconocimiento mediante examen microscópico. Actualmente, se puede confirmar el diagnóstico mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa que permite identificar cebadores específicos de P. knowlesi.
La malaria por P. knowlesi ha ocasionado desenlaces fatales en humanos, lo que plantea diversos retos como la búsqueda de métodos operativos de diagnóstico para las zonas endémicas, el estudio de los vectores involucrados y la eficacia terapéutica de los medicamentos para su tratamiento. En las regiones selváticas de Suramérica se hace imperativa la vigilancia de parásitos y vectores de la malaria en simios, que potencialmente puedan ocasionar esta zoonosis.

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  • Edgar Martínez-Salazar Grupo Malaria, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Alberto Tobón-Castaño Grupo Malaria, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Silvia Blair Grupo Malaria, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

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Cómo citar
1.
Martínez-Salazar E, Tobón-Castaño A, Blair S. Malaria en humanos por infección natural con Plasmodium knowlesi. biomedica [Internet]. 1 de abril de 2012 [citado 9 de mayo de 2021];32(sup1):121-30. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/583

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Publicado
2012-04-01
Sección
Revisión de tema