Evidencia mundial sobre el retraso del crecimiento infantil desde una perspectiva de salud pública: revisión sistemática

Paola Rueda-Guevara, Natalia Botero-Tovar, Kenny Margarita Trujillo , Andrea Ramírez Varela, .

Palabras clave: desarrollo infantil, insuficiencia de crecimiento, desnutrición, colaboración intersectorial, indicadores de salud, prevención primaria

Resumen

Introducción. Según estimaciones mundiales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para el 2017, el 9,6 % de los niños menores de cinco años padecen retraso del crecimiento. La evidencia mundial ha demostrado que las acciones para prevenir el retardo del crecimiento o para tratarlo adquieren relevancia si las abordan todos los sectores involucrados. Por lo tanto, es necesario determinar las acciones intersectoriales para atender el riesgo de retraso del crecimiento durante el embarazo y los dos primeros años de vida.
Objetivo. Rastrear y describir la evidencia mundial para la prevención, las intervenciones nutricionales y los esfuerzos de colaboración intersectorial contra el retraso del crecimiento en los lactantes.
Materiales y métodos: Se hizo una revisión sistemática en el 2019 (PROSPERO CRD42019134431). La búsqueda incluyó PubMed, OVID y Web of Science, así como documentos oficiales de la OMS y la Organización para la Agricultura y la Alimentación de Naciones Unidas (FAO) y recomendaciones de expertos.
Resultados. Se seleccionó un total de 231 estudios: 86,1 % describían factores relacionados con la prevención, 30,7 %, intervenciones nutricionales, y 52,8 %, esfuerzos de colaboración intersectorial; 36,4 % de ellos se llevaron a cabo en múltiples regiones. Del total, el 61 % de los estudios se enfocaba en la importancia de las intervenciones durante el embarazo, el 71,9 % desde el nacimiento hasta los seis meses y el 84,8 % desde los seis meses hasta los dos años. Las variables descritas con mayor frecuencia fueron la atención prenatal, el asesoramiento nutricional para la madre y el recién nacido, y el asesoramiento sobre la suplementación con micronutrientes.
Conclusiones. La comprensión basada en la evidencia de las acciones orientadas a monitorear el riesgo de factores asociados al retraso del crecimiento desde el embarazo hasta los dos años, es fundamental.

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Cómo citar
1.
Rueda-Guevara P, Botero Tovar N, Trujillo KM, Ramírez A. Evidencia mundial sobre el retraso del crecimiento infantil desde una perspectiva de salud pública: revisión sistemática. biomedica [Internet]. 22 de septiembre de 2021 [citado 22 de octubre de 2021];41(3):541-54. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/6017

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2021-09-22
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