Variabilidad genética en regiones codificantes del antígeno de superficie y el dominio de la transcriptasa inversa de la polimerasa del virus de la hepatitis B, Colombia, 2002-2014

Dioselina Peláez-Carvajal, Nidia Janeth Forero, Martha Escalante-Mora, Katherine Laiton-Donato, José Aldemar Usme-Ciro, .

Palabras clave: virus de la hepatitis B, genotipo, ADN polimerasa dirigida por ARN, mutación

Resumen

Introducción. Se estima que 240 millones de personas en el mundo tienen infección crónica con el virus de la hepatitis B (HBV). En Colombia, la endemia es variable y circulan diferentes genotipos virales. Las mutaciones a lo largo del genoma se han asociado con resistencia antiviral, el escape ante la reacción de anticuerpos neutralizadores tras la vacunación o a la infección natural, la infección oculta y la progresión a carcinoma hepatocelular.
Objetivo. Identificar los genotipos y las mutaciones presentes en la región codificante del antígeno de superficie (S) y del dominio de la transcriptasa inversa (reverse transcriptase, RT) de la polimerasa del HBV en muestras de suero remitidas al Instituto Nacional de Salud de Colombia para el diagnóstico de hepatitis B, entre el 2002 y el 2014.
Materiales y métodos. En 495 muestras de suero positivas para el antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B (HBsAg) se buscó el ADN viral, se amplificó y secuenció un fragmento de 1.591 nucleótidos y, posteriormente, se hizo el análisis filogenético correspondiente.
Resultados. En 66 de las muestras se logró detectar el genoma viral y 28 de ellas se secuenciaron exitosamente. El análisis filogenético permitió identificar los genotipos y subgenotipos F3 y A2. Una muestra presentó simultáneamente las sustituciones de resistencia L180M y M204V, otra presentó la sustitución I169L y en una se identificó la mutación P120Q, previamente asociada con variantes de escape. Dos muestras presentaron una deleción de 105 nucleótidos en la región preS1-preS2.
Conclusiones. Se corroboró la circulación en Colombia de los genotipos y subgenotipos F3 y A2, así como la presencia de mutaciones de resistencia y escape. El presente estudio constituye un aporte a la epidemiologia molecular del HBV en Colombia.

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  • Dioselina Peláez-Carvajal Laboratorio de Virología, Subdirección de Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia, Dirección de Redes en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
  • Nidia Janeth Forero Laboratorio de Virología, Subdirección de Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia, Dirección de Redes en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia Grupo de Virología, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
  • Martha Escalante-Mora Laboratorio de Virología, Subdirección de Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia, Dirección de Redes en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
  • Katherine Laiton-Donato Laboratorio de Virología, Subdirección de Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia, Dirección de Redes en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
  • José Aldemar Usme-Ciro Laboratorio de Virología, Subdirección de Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia, Dirección de Redes en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia Centro de Investigación en Salud para el Trópico, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Santa Marta, Colombia

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Cómo citar
Peláez-Carvajal, D., Forero, N. J., Escalante-Mora, M., Laiton-Donato, K., & Usme-Ciro, J. A. (2018). Variabilidad genética en regiones codificantes del antígeno de superficie y el dominio de la transcriptasa inversa de la polimerasa del virus de la hepatitis B, Colombia, 2002-2014. Biomédica, 38, 37-50. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v38i3.3871
Publicado
2018-08-01
Sección
Artículos originales