Consideraciones sobre la evolución de la respuesta inmunitaria Th2 y sus posibles relaciones con parasitosis y alergia

Luis Caraballo, Josefina Zakzuk, .

Palabras clave: inmunoglobulina E, helmintos, áscaris, alergia e inmunología, genética

Resumen

Hay diversos vínculos entre las parasitosis, especialmente las helmintiasis, y las enfermedades alérgicas, ambas condiciones de importancia epidemiológica en las regiones tropicales. Mientras que se ha especulado con frecuencia los efectos de las enfermedades parasitarias sobre la evolución del sistema inmunitario, no se conocen las fuerzas selectivas que han moldeado la respuesta alérgica y pensamos que incluyen mecanismos evolutivos distintos a los tradicionalmente divulgados.
Los helmintos, fuente infecciosa y antigénica inductora de una respuesta parecida a la alérgica, se establecieron como parásitos en huéspedes que ya tenían grupos celulares de inmunidad de tipo 2. Hoy sabemos que un componente esencial en la relación de parasitismo entre los helmintos y sus huéspedes es la inmunosupresión que los primeros inducen, al crear una especie de equilibrio que permite la supervivencia de ambos.
El desarrollo de este equilibrio debió incluir adaptaciones de ambos organismos y la supervivencia del parásito podría ser el resultado de la adquisición de mecanismos supresores de la respuesta defensiva, la selección de los huéspedes con menor intensidad de la respuesta de tipo 2, o ambas.
Esto, a su vez, sugiere que aunque las infecciones helmínticas hayan influido en la conformación de la inmunidad de tipo 2, no han sido una fuerza selectiva importante en el caso particular de la respuesta alérgica que, a su vez, está más ligada a una exagerada respuesta Th2/IgE.

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i1.419

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  • Luis Caraballo Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia Fundación para el Desarrollo de las Ciencias Médicas y Biológicas (Fundemeb), Cartagena, Colombia
  • Josefina Zakzuk Instituto de Investigaciones Inmunológicas, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia Fundación para el Desarrollo de las Ciencias Médicas y Biológicas (Fundemeb), Cartagena, Colombia

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Cómo citar
Caraballo, L., & Zakzuk, J. (2012). Consideraciones sobre la evolución de la respuesta inmunitaria Th2 y sus posibles relaciones con parasitosis y alergia. Biomédica, 32(1), 145-57. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i1.419
Publicado
2012-03-01
Sección
Revisión de tema