Efectos de los coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV) y del síndrome respiratorio del Medio Oriente (MERS-CoV) en el sistema nervioso. ¿Qué esperar del SARS-CoV-2?

Jeison Monroy-Gómez, Orlando Torres-Fernández , .

Palabras clave: infecciones por coronavirus, síndrome respiratorio agudo grave, sistema nervioso

Resumen

Los coronavirus son una familia de virus que se caracterizan por producir afectaciones respiratorias y gastrointestinales en animales y en seres humanos. El actual SARS-CoV-2, agente infeccioso de la COVID-19, pertenece a un subgrupo denominado betacoronavirus del que hacen parte el SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV, virus responsables de epidemias en el 2002 y el 2012, respectivamente.
Estos virus también pueden infectar el sistema nervioso debido a su afinidad con la enzima convertidora de angiotensina humana 2 (ACE2), la cual se expresa en neuronas y células gliales. Se ha demostrado que las infecciones con SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV, y ahora también con el SARS-CoV-2, ocasionan condiciones neurológicas como la enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda, la conciencia alterada y las lesiones musculares, así como mareos, hipogeusia, hiposmia, hipoxia, neuralgia y encefalopatía hipóxica. Por ello debe prestarse mucha atención a las manifestaciones neurológicas de los pacientes de COVID-19.

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  • Jeison Monroy-Gómez Grupo de Neurociencias Aplicadas para la Salud y el Deporte, Grupo de Capacidades Humanas en Salud e Inclusión, Institución Universitaria Escuela Colombiana de Rehabilitación, Bogotá DC, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9765-0461
  • Orlando Torres-Fernández Grupo de Morfología Celular, Dirección de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6620-2615

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Cómo citar
1.
Monroy-Gómez J, Torres-Fernández O. Efectos de los coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV) y del síndrome respiratorio del Medio Oriente (MERS-CoV) en el sistema nervioso. ¿Qué esperar del SARS-CoV-2?. biomedica [Internet]. 30 de octubre de 2020 [citado 24 de noviembre de 2020];40(Supl. 2):173-9. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/5682

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Publicado
2020-10-30