Eficacia y seguridad de cuatro COVID-19 vacunas para prevenir la infección por SARS-CoV-2: una revisión rápida

Lina Sofía Morón-Duarte, Kelly Rocío Chacón, María Paula Gutiérrez , Ilich Herbert De La Hoz , Nancy Yomayusa , .

Palabras clave: infecciones por coronavirus, vacunas, resultado del tratamiento, seguridad

Resumen

Introducción. Desde que surgió el virus SARS-CoV-2, se han realizado esfuerzos para desarrollar vacunas para controlar la pandemia por COVID-19.
Objetivo. Evaluar los datos de la eficacia y seguridad de las vacunas BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1/AZD1222 y Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/rAd5-S contra el SARS-CoV-2.
Materiales y métodos. Se realizaron búsquedas en PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane y la Plataforma de Registro Internacional de Ensayos Clínicos de la OMS el 15 de marzo de 2021. Los términos usados fueron: “vaccine” OR “vaccination” AND “covid19” OR “coronavirus” OR “sarscov2” AND “bnt162b2” OR “chadox1-S” OR “azd1222”
OR “sputnik” OR “Gam-COVID-Vac” OR “mrna” OR “mRNA-1273”. Se midió el riesgo de sesgo de los estudios y la calidad de la información por medio de los perfiles GRADE. Se presenta un análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de los resultados de los estudios clínicos.
Resultados. Se identificaron 74 estudios y se incluyeron 4 en la revisión. La eficacia de las vacunas BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1/AZD1222 y Gam-COVID-VacrAd26-S/rAd5-S contra la COVID-19 sintomática fue del 95,0 % (IC95% 90,3-97,6), 94,1 % (IC95% 89,3-96,8), 66,7 % (IC95% 57,4-74,0) y 91,1 % (IC95% 83,8-95,1), respectivamente, y hubo una certeza moderada de la información debido a la falta de evidencia directa. Los perfiles de seguridad fueron aceptables, y los eventos adversos graves (RR resumido=0,93; IC95% 0,77-1,12; p=0,16) y muerte por todas las causas (RR resumido=0,70; IC95% 0,33-1,50; p=0,90) no mostraron diferencias significativas.
Conclusión. Los resultados de esta revisión respaldan el nivel de evidencia de la eficacia y seguridad de las vacunas COVID-19 que fueron analizadas.

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Cómo citar
1.
Morón-Duarte LS, Chacón KR, Gutiérrez MP, De La Hoz IH, Yomayusa N. Eficacia y seguridad de cuatro COVID-19 vacunas para prevenir la infección por SARS-CoV-2: una revisión rápida. biomedica [Internet]. 31 de octubre de 2022 [citado 9 de diciembre de 2022];42(Sp. 2):19-31. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/6254
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2022-10-31
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