Papel de las células dendríticas tolerogénicas ILT3+/ILT4+ en la respuesta inmunitaria a trasplante de órganos y tejidos

John F. Arboleda, Luis F. García, Cristiam M. Álvarez, .

Palabras clave: trasplante, células dendríticas, tolerancia inmunológica, inmunomodulación, supervivencia

Resumen

Las células dendríticas son las células presentadores de antígeno más potentes y, por lo tanto, son importantes en el desencadenamiento de la respuesta inmunitaria frente a aloantígenos; sin embargo, también juegan un papel fundamental en el mantenimiento de la tolerancia periférica. La tolerancia es potenciada por la expresión en estas células de los receptores inhibidores ILT3 e ILT4, los cuales, mediante el reclutamiento de fosfatasas de tirosinas a sus dominios ITIM, inhiben la activación de la célula presentadora de antígeno y conducen a una débil respuesta de la célula T. Estos receptores propician, además, una interacción bidireccional con células T supresoras, T reguladoras o ambas, generando una cascada inmunorreguladora específica de antígeno, en la cual la célula dendrítica se comporta como una célula "tolerogénica".
En esta revisión analizamos la biología y el comportamiento de las células dendríticas tolerogénicas que expresan altos niveles de ILT3 e ILT4, así como algunos aspectos moleculares y genéticos de estos receptores y su importancia en la modulación de las respuestas inmunitarias específicas de aloantígeno frente a un trasplante.

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  • John F. Arboleda Grupo de Inmunología Celular e Inmunogenética, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Luis F. García Grupo de Inmunología Celular e Inmunogenética, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Cristiam M. Álvarez Grupo de Inmunología Celular e Inmunogenética, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

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Cómo citar
Arboleda, J. F., García, L. F., & Álvarez, C. M. (1). Papel de las células dendríticas tolerogénicas ILT3+/ILT4+ en la respuesta inmunitaria a trasplante de órganos y tejidos. Biomédica, 31(2), 281-95. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v31i2.308

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