Impacto clínico y metabólico de la intervención multidisciplinaria a través de un programa de atención integral para niños y adolescentes con obesidad

Nora Alejandra Zuluaga, Adriana Osorno, Alba Lozano, Oscar Villada, .

Palabras clave: Obesidad, niños, adolescentes, ejercicio, dieta saludable, educación, factores de riesgo, índice de masa corporal, síndrome metabólico

Resumen

Introducción. El enfoque de la obesidad infantil requiere de la atención con programas multidisciplinarios que integren todas las dimensiones susceptibles de manejo.
Objetivo. Describir los cambios clínicos y metabólicos en pacientes con obesidad luego de un programa de atención integral en obesidad infantil.
Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, en una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes de 6-17 años, atendidos en el programa de obesidad del Hospital Universitario de San Vicente Fundación (2012-2015).
Se realizó atención multidisciplinaria e intervención educativa. Se evaluaron variables antropométricas y de laboratorio tanto al ingreso al programa como en la última evaluación. Se exploraron diferencias según tiempo de seguimiento.
Resultados. Se evaluaron 53 pacientes, 52,8% hombres, con edad promedio de 11± 2 años. El seguimiento fue de 18± 6 meses; 30% fueron seguidos entre 31 y 36 meses. Se encontró disminución en el IMC (Z - score) entre el ingreso (2,75± 0,58 DE) y el último control (2,32± 0,63 DE), p: 0,000, IC 95%: 0,27-0,58. El 79,25% de los pacientes redujo el Z-score del IMC. Esta disminución fue significativa independiente del tiempo de seguimiento. La proporción de pacientes con IMC con Z score > 3 pasó del 33,4% al 14,6%. El número de criterios positivos para síndrome metabólico disminuyó en el seguimiento. Los triglicéridos y la HbA1c fueron las variables metabólicas que mejoraron significativamente.
Conclusiones. El manejo de la obesidad infantil con una intervención interdisciplinaria asociada a un soporte educativo grupal continuado puede impactar significativamente en los cambios clínicos y metabólicos. Es necesario continuar seguimiento en el tiempo para prevenir las recaídas.

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  • Nora Alejandra Zuluaga Programa Obesidad Infantil, Hospital Universitario de San Vicente Fundación, Medellín, Colombia
  • Adriana Osorno Programa Obesidad Infantil, Hospital Universitario de San Vicente Fundación, Medellín, Colombia
  • Alba Lozano Programa Obesidad Infantil, Hospital Universitario de San Vicente Fundación, Medellín, Colombia
  • Oscar Villada Programa Obesidad Infantil, Hospital Universitario de San Vicente Fundación, Medellín, Colombia; Dirección de Investigaciones, Hospital Universitario de San Vicente Fundación, Medellín, Colombia

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Cómo citar
Zuluaga, N. A., Osorno, A., Lozano, A., & Villada, O. (2019). Impacto clínico y metabólico de la intervención multidisciplinaria a través de un programa de atención integral para niños y adolescentes con obesidad. Biomédica, 40(1). https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.4593
Publicado
2019-08-09
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