Diabetes mellitus en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca y modificación del efecto de los factores de riesgo de mortalidad a corto plazo: un estudio observacional del Registro Colombiano de Falla Cardíaca (RECOLFACA)

Luis Eduardo Echeverría, Clara Saldarriaga, Sebastián Campbell-Quintero, Lisbeth Natalia Morales-Rodríguez, Juan David López-Ponce de León, Andrés Felipe Buitrago, Erika Martínez-Carreño, Jorge Alberto Sandoval-Luna, Alexis Llamas, Gustavo Adolfo Moreno-Silgado, Julián Vanegas-Eljach, Nelson Eduardo Murillo-Benítez, Ricardo Gómez-Paláu, Alex Arnulfo Rivera-Toquica, Juan Esteban Gómez-Mesa, RECOLFACA research group, .

Palabras clave: Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2, insuficiencia cardiaca, factores de riesgo, mortalidad, América Latina, Anopheles triannulatus, código de barras, COI, Colombia.

Resumen

Introducción. La insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 son problemas críticos de salud pública.
Objetivo. Caracterizar los factores de riesgo de mortalidad en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 de un registro grande en Colombia y evaluar las posibles modificaciones del efecto de la diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 sobre otros factores de riesgo.
Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca con y sin diabetes mellitus de tipo 2, inscritos en el Registro Colombiano de Insuficiencia Cardíaca (RECOLFACA). RECOLFACA incorporó pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardíaca de 60 centros médicos de Colombia durante 2017-2019. El resultado primario fue la mortalidad por todas las causas. El análisis de supervivencia se realizó utilizando modelos ajustados de riesgos proporcionales de Cox.
Resultados. Se incluyeron 2.514 pacientes, la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 fue del 24,7 % (n = 620). Encontramos siete predictores independientes de mortalidad a corto plazo para la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica del grupo sin diabetes mellitus de tipo 2, el ritmo sinusal, la terapia triple, el uso de nitratos, el uso de estatinas, la anemia y la hiperpotasemia. En el grupo de diabetes mellitus de tipo 2, solo el diámetro diastólico del ventrículo izquierdo fue un predictor de mortalidad independiente (HR = 0,96; IC95 %: 0,93 - 0,98). No hubo evidencia de modificación del efecto de la diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 sobre la relación entre ningún predictor independiente y la mortalidad por todas las causas. Sin embargo, se observó una modificación significativa del efecto de la diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 entre el tabaquismo y la mortalidad.
Conclusiones. Los pacientes con diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 tuvieron mayor riesgo de mortalidad. Los resultados también sugieren que el diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 no modifica el efecto de los factores de riesgo independientes de mortalidad en IC evaluados. Sin embargo, la diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 modifica significativamente la relación de riesgo entre mortalidad y tabaquismo en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca, posiblemente debido a un efecto sinérgico negativo que resulta en lesión vascular.

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Cómo citar
1.
Echeverría LE, Saldarriaga C, Campbell-Quintero S, Morales-Rodríguez LN, López-Ponce de León JD, Buitrago AF, et al. Diabetes mellitus en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca y modificación del efecto de los factores de riesgo de mortalidad a corto plazo: un estudio observacional del Registro Colombiano de Falla Cardíaca (RECOLFACA). biomedica [Internet]. 31 de mayo de 2024 [citado 25 de julio de 2024];44(Sp. 1):182-97. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/6951

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2024-05-31

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