Taxonomía de los hongos: un rompecabezas al que le faltan muchas piezas

Álvaro León Rúa-Giraldo, .

Palabras clave: hongos, clasificación, filogenia, evolución biológica, código de barras del ADN taxonómico

Resumen

Los hongos son organismos polifacéticos presentes en casi todos los ecosistemas de la tierra, donde establecen diversos tipos de simbiosis con otros seres vivos. A pesar de ser reconocidos por los humanos desde la antigüedad –y de la cantidad de trabajos que han profundizado sobre su biología y ecología–, aún falta mucho por conocer sobre estos organismos.
Algunos de los criterios que clásicamente se han utilizado para su estudio, hoy resultan limitados y hasta cierto punto permiten un agrupamiento de los aislamientos según algunas características, pero generan confusión en su clasificación y, más aún, cuando se pretende comprender sus relaciones genealógicas.
Los caracteres fenotípicos no son suficientes para identificar una especie de hongos y, menos aún, para construir una filogenia amplia o de un grupo particular. Hay grandes vacíos que hacen que los árboles generados sean inestables y fácilmente debatidos.
Para los profesionales de la salud, parece que la identificación de los hongos hasta niveles inferiores como género y especie es suficiente para elegir el tratamiento más adecuado para su control, comprender la epidemiología de los cuadros clínicos asociados y reconocer los brotes y los factores determinantes de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. No obstante, la ubicación taxonómica dentro del reino permitiría establecer relaciones filogenéticas entre los taxones fúngicos, facilitando la comprensión de su biología, su distribución en la naturaleza y la evolución de su potencial patogénico.

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Cómo citar
1.
Rúa-Giraldo Álvaro L. Taxonomía de los hongos: un rompecabezas al que le faltan muchas piezas. biomedica [Internet]. 31 de agosto de 2023 [citado 19 de mayo de 2024];43(Sp. 1):288-311. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/7052

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2023-08-31

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