Consecuencias de los conflictos armados en la salud mental de niños y adolescentes: revisión de revisiones de la literatura

Sandra Piñeros-Ortiz, Jaime Moreno-Chaparro, Nathaly Garzón-Orjuela, Zulma Urrego-Mendoza, Daniel Samacá-Samacá, Javier Eslava-Schmalbach, .

Palabras clave: Niño, Adolescentes, Salud mental, Conflictos armados, Violencia, Guerra

Resumen

Introducción. Los conflictos armados dejan consecuencias evidentes en la salud mental de la población infantil y adolescente. En ese marco, se ha documentado una serie de situaciones que tienen como factor común la vulnerabilidad de esta población y las afectaciones biopsicosociales significativas.
Objetivo. Determinar y sintetizar las diferentes consecuencias de los conflictos armados en la salud mental de la población infantil y adolescente.
Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática exhaustiva de revisiones bibliográficas hasta julio de 2019 en las bases de datos MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS y otras. Se seleccionaron los artículos y se analizaron de forma narrativa sus características, objetivos y consecuencias en salud mental en tres momentos: antes del conflicto, durante el conflicto y en el posconflicto.
Resultados. De un total de 587 artículos potencialmente relevantes, se seleccionaron 72. En los estudios sobre el periodo anterior al conflicto, se detallaron experiencias psicológicas y síntomas somáticos anticipatorios. Durante el conflicto, se evidenciaron síntomas regresivos, conductuales y cognitivos, como enuresis, miedo, tristeza, agresión, hiperactividad e inatención, entre otros. Además, se establecieron consecuencias directas, como trastornos de adaptación, depresión, ansiedad y, en mayor medida, estrés postraumático. Por último, en el posconflicto, se recopiló la información sobre los procesos de transmisión de las consecuencias y la resiliencia. Por otro lado, se profundizó en las consecuencias potenciales en el desarrollo biopsicosocial, la moralidad, la identidad, el contexto, la cultura, la educación y la sociedad.
Conclusiones. Las consecuencias de los conflictos armados en la salud mental se inscriben en un proceso complejo que se expresa en función de la etapa evolutiva de la exposición, del tiempo del conflicto armado y de los factores contextuales.

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  • Sandra Piñeros-Ortiz Grupo de Investigación Violencia y Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia; Departamento de Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5951-3797
  • Jaime Moreno-Chaparro Grupo de Investigación en Equidad en Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia; Escuela de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D. C., Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5655-3654
  • Nathaly Garzón-Orjuela Grupo de Investigación en Equidad en Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6181-8154
  • Zulma Urrego-Mendoza Grupo de Investigación Violencia y Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia; Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia,Bogotá, D.C., Colombia http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1732-4725
  • Daniel Samacá-Samacá Grupo de Investigación en Equidad en Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0782-4315
  • Javier Eslava-Schmalbach Grupo de Investigación en Equidad en Salud, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia; Hospital Universitario Nacional de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D. C., Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1502-2918

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Cómo citar
1.
Piñeros-Ortiz S, Moreno-Chaparro J, Garzón-Orjuela N, Urrego-Mendoza Z, Samacá-Samacá D, Eslava-Schmalbach J. Consecuencias de los conflictos armados en la salud mental de niños y adolescentes: revisión de revisiones de la literatura. biomedica [Internet]. 22 de septiembre de 2021 [citado 23 de octubre de 2021];41(3):424-48. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/5447

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