Grupos de riesgo citogenético de leucemia mieloide aguda pediátrica a partir del análisis de supervivencia en un hospital de referencia para cáncer en Perú

Yesica Llimpe, .

Palabras clave: leucemia mieloide aguda, análisis citogenético, cariotipo, pediatría, supervivencia, aberraciones cromosómicas

Resumen

Introducción. La leucemia mieloide aguda es una neoplasia heterogénea caracterizada por la proliferación de células mieloides inmaduras. El análisis citogenético ha revelado la presencia de aberraciones cromosómicas de importancia en el pronóstico del paciente.
Objetivo. Determinar los grupos de riesgo citogenético de pacientes pediátricos con leucemia mieloide aguda a partir de la supervivencia global.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se incluyeron los registros clínicos de los pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de leucemia mieloide aguda de novo admitidos en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas entre el 2001 y el 2011 y sometidos a análisis citogenético de médula ósea. Los grupos de riesgo citogenético se establecieron según los criterios del Medical Research Council. Las curvas de supervivencia global se elaboraron con el método de Kaplan-Meier y se compararon mediante la prueba de Mantel-Cox y una regresión de Cox, utilizando el programa R, versión 3.3.2.
Resultados. Se incluyeron 130 pacientes, 68 varones (52,3 %) y 62 mujeres (47,7 %), mayoritariamente del subtipo M2 (33 %). La edad promedio fue de 7,7 (rango de 0 a 15 años). Se observaron aberraciones cromosómicas en el 60,8 % y la más frecuente fue la traslocación t(8;21). Según el análisis de supervivencia global, se observaron dos grupos de riesgo citogenético: favorable y desfavorable.
Conclusión. Se determinaron dos grupos de riesgo citogenético: alto (o desfavorable) y estándar (o favorable).

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Cómo citar
1.
Llimpe Y. Grupos de riesgo citogenético de leucemia mieloide aguda pediátrica a partir del análisis de supervivencia en un hospital de referencia para cáncer en Perú. biomedica [Internet]. 29 de junio de 2021 [citado 2 de agosto de 2021];41(2):302-13. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/5747

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2021-06-29
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