Caracterización de un brote de malaria en una zona no endémica de la región costera del Ecuador

Diego Omar Morales , Paul Andrés Quinatoa , Jaen Carlos Cagua , .

Palabras clave: malaria/epidemiología, Plasmodium vivax, brotes de enfermedades, migrantes, reporte

Resumen

Introducción. La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad transmitida por vectores, ampliamente distribuida en la región amazónica y en la zona costera del norte del Ecuador. Su epidemiología involucra factores relacionados, como asentamientos humanos, sitios de reproducción del vector, movilidad, actividad productiva y capacidad de respuesta de los sistemas de salud, entre otros.
Objetivo. Describir la transmisión de malaria por Plasmodium vivax en un área no endémica de Ecuador, mediante el análisis de los factores epidemiológicos y entomológicos involucrados.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo el estudio epidemiológico de los casos reportados en el cantón de Salinas y la caracterización de criaderos del vector con capturas de larvas y adultos mediante la captura de mosquitos en reposo.
Resultados. Se detectaron 21 casos de malaria con transmisión local relacionados con la presencia de casos iniciales importados de Venezuela. Se identificó Anopheles albimanus como el vector predominante en criaderos naturales como estuarios, pozos y canales de agua.
Conclusiones. Se detectó un brote de malaria desencadenado por casos importados de Venezuela. Las condiciones climáticas, sociales, ambientales y ecológicas han favorecido el desarrollo del vector, manteniendo el ciclo de transmisión. Las estrategias para controlar la malaria importada deben ser multifacéticas, e incluir la detección temprana de casos y el control de criaderos productivos para evitar la transmisión local.

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Cómo citar
1.
Morales DO, Quinatoa PA, Cagua JC. Caracterización de un brote de malaria en una zona no endémica de la región costera del Ecuador. biomedica [Internet]. 31 de mayo de 2021 [citado 16 de junio de 2021];41(Supl. 1):100-12. Disponible en: https://revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/5816

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2021-05-31
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