Hantavirus como agentes emergentes de importancia en Suramérica

Andrés F. Londoño, Silvana Levis, Juan D. Rodas, .

Palabras clave: hantavirus, enfermedades transmisibles emergentes, ratones, personas, agricultura, Colombia

Resumen

Los albores del siglo XX estuvieron marcados por el surgimiento de agentes infecciosos y el resurgimiento de otros considerados controlados, eventos ambos posiblemente conectados con alteraciones ecológicas que condujeron al reconocimiento de un notorio cambio climático, del cual apenas comenzamos a ver los efectos.
Entre todas las variedades de agentes infecciosos considerados nuevos, los virus sobresalen en número no sólo por su capacidad de proliferación, sino también por su versatilidad genética, lo que los hace más diestros para evolucionar y adaptarse a nuevas circunstancias.
Uno de los agentes virales más ubicuos y populares de las Américas en los últimos tiempos, son los transmitidos por roedores silvestres y urbanos, y entre estos, están los hantavirus causantes de un conocido síndrome pulmonar humano. Este género viral, del cual se han descubierto cerca de 18 agentes sólo en Suramérica en las últimas dos décadas, pertenece a la familia Bunyaviridae; aunque muchos de sus representantes sólo causan infecciones persistentes en roedores silvestres (miembros de la subfamilia Sigmodontinae) y subclínicas en el hombre, otros pueden causar una letalidad humana del 60 %.
El objetivo de este documento fue revisar el estado actual del conocimiento de algunos aspectos generales de los hantavirus y las enfermedades que producen en el mundo, mencionando de paso los hallazgos más recientes en nuestro país. Al final se discuten algunas de las muchas dudas aún presentes respecto a la importancia clínica y los impactos que estos agentes puedan ocasionar sobre la salud pública humana en Colombia.

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  • Andrés F. Londoño Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Veterinarias, Centauro, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
  • Silvana Levis Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas, Pergamino, Argentina
  • Juan D. Rodas Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Veterinarias, Centauro, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia

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Cómo citar
Londoño, A. F., Levis, S., & Rodas, J. D. (1). Hantavirus como agentes emergentes de importancia en Suramérica. Biomédica, 31(3), 451-64. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v31i3.370

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