The role of individual, household and area of residence factors on poor self-rated health in Colombian adults: a multilevel study

Beatriz Caicedo-Velásquez, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, .

Resumen

Introducción. La salud auto-percibida se ha encontrado fuertemente asociada a la morbilidad y mortalidad. Ésta es influenciada principalmente por condiciones individuales, pero así mismo por características sociales y del ambiente en el cual las personas residen.
Objetivo. Investigar los factores individuales, del hogar y de la localidad asociados a la salud auto-percibida por adultos colombianos.
Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal. La información sobre 19 localidades urbanas fue obtenida de bases de datos nacionales, en tanto que los datos sobre 37.352 individuos anidados en 15.788 hogares fueron obtenidos a través de una encuesta de base poblacional. Dada la estructura jerárquica de los datos, las estimaciones del efecto de las variables individuales, del hogar y de la localidad sobre la auto percepción de salud fue obtenida a través de un modelo de regresión logística de tres-niveles.
Resultados. Los modelos multinivel ajustados mostraron que, a nivel individual, hay mayor chance de peor percepción de salud en adultos de mayor edad, bajo nivel socio-económico, que conviven sin compañero, físicamente inactivos y con morbilidades presentes. A nivel de hogar, peor percepción de salud estuvo asociada con pertenecer a familias de bajo nivel socioeconómico, en residencias ubicadas cerca de fábricas, áreas contaminadas, inseguras y de alto ruido. Finalmente, a nivel de localidad, después del ajuste por variables individuales y del hogar, residir en localidades pobres aumentó el chance de tener peor percepción de salud.
Conclusiones. Los resultados evidencian la necesidad considerar un marco conceptual más amplio en el momento de diseñar e implementar estrategias y programas que apunten al mejoramiento de las condiciones de salud de las poblaciones urbanas en Latinoamérica.

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  • Beatriz Caicedo-Velásquez Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; Grupo de Investigación Epidemiología y Bioestadística, Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6284-512X
  • María Clara Restrepo-Méndez Instituto de Salud Materna y Perinatal de Oxford (OMPHI), Universidad de Oxford, Oxford, Inglaterra

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Cómo citar
Caicedo-Velásquez, B., & Restrepo-Méndez, M. C. (2019). The role of individual, household and area of residence factors on poor self-rated health in Colombian adults: a multilevel study. Biomédica, 40(2). https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.4818
Publicado
2019-09-04
Sección
Artículos originales