Fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable en personas mayores de la ciudad de Manizales

Carmen-Lucía Curcio, Andrés-Fernando Giraldo, Fernando Gómez, .

Palabras clave: envejecimiento saludable, biomarcadores, fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable, comorbilidades, determinantes sociales, conductas saludables, envejecimiento.

Resumen

Introducción. El fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable describe un grupo de individuos que envejecen con baja carga de morbilidad, sin deterioro funcional o cognoscitivo y que permanecen con grados aceptables de bienestar y de participación social.
Objetivo. Establecer la frecuencia del fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable de acuerdo con los modelos multidominio, biomédico y psicosocial, e identificar los factores predictores en los diferentes modelos.
Materiales y métodos. Diseño transversal, observacional y descriptivo. 402 personas (50,1% mujeres) de 65 años y más (promedio 69,2) del área urbana de Manizales. El fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable se definió con cinco dimensiones: salud metabólica y fisiológica, función física, cognoscitiva, bienestar psicológico y social. Los factores asociados incluían aspectos sociodemográficos y de salud.
Resultados. Según el modelo multidimensional la prevalencia fue 15,5%, en el modelo biomédico 12,3% estaban con envejecimiento saludable y en el psicosocial 63,3%. Tener buena autopercepción de salud es un predictor independiente de envejecimiento saludable en los tres modelos. Además, la satisfacción con los ingresos económicos predice envejecimiento saludable según los modelos biomédico y psicosocial. Un tercer factor predictor fue ser casado, pero es significativo solamente en el modelo psicosocial.
Conclusiones. Según el fenotípico de envejecimiento saludable, la prevalencia es baja en el modelo biológico y multidominio (1 de cada 10) y mayor en el modelo psicosocial (6 de cada 10). Sin embargo, y a pesar de ello, los factores predictores independientes son los mismos: buena y muy buena autopercepción de salud, satisfacción con los ingresos económicos y ser casado.

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  • Carmen-Lucía Curcio Programa de Investigaciones en Gerontología y Geriatría, Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8063-2301
  • Andrés-Fernando Giraldo Programa de Investigaciones en Gerontología y Geriatría, Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5891-4919
  • Fernando Gómez Programa de Investigaciones en Gerontología y Geriatría, Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4360-8174

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Cómo citar
Curcio, C.-L., Giraldo, A.-F., & Gómez, F. (2019). Fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable en personas mayores de la ciudad de Manizales . Biomédica, 40(1). https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.4799
Publicado
2019-08-05
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Artículos originales