Fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable de personas mayores en Manizales

Carmen Lucía Curcio, Andrés Fernando Giraldo, Fernando Gómez, .

Palabras clave: envejecimiento saludable, fenotipo, biomarcadores, determinantes sociales de la salud, envejecimiento

Resumen

Introducción. El fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable está presente en aquellos individuos que envejecen con poca morbilidad, sin deterioro funcional ni cognitivo, y con un nivel aceptable de bienestar y de participación social.
Objetivo. Establecer la frecuencia del fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable según un modelo multidimensional, uno biomédico y uno psicosocial, y determinar los factores de predicción en cada uno de ellos.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de diseño transversal, observacional y descriptivo, que incluyó a 402 personas (50,1 % mujeres) de 65 años y más (promedio de edad, 69,2) en el área urbana de Manizales. El fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable se caracterizó en cinco dimensiones: salud metabólica y fisiológica, función física, función cognitiva, bienestar psicológico y bienestar social. Los factores asociados incluyeron aspectos sociodemográficos y de salud.
Resultados. La prevalencia de envejecimiento saludable fue de 15,5 % en el modelo multidimensional, de 12,3 % en el biomédico y de 63,3 % en el psicosocial. El tener autopercepción de buena salud fue un factor de predicción independiente de envejecimiento saludable en los tres modelos, así como la satisfacción con los ingresos económicos en el modelo biomédico y en el psicosocial. Un tercer factor de predicción fue el estar casado, aunque fue significativo solamente en el modelo psicosocial.
Conclusiones. La prevalencia del fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable fue baja en el modelo biológico y en el multidimensional (1 de cada 10 personas), y mayor en el modelo psicosocial (6 de cada 10). A pesar de ello, los factores predictores independientes fueron los mismos: la autopercepción de buena o muy buena salud, la satisfacción con los ingresos económicos y el estar casado.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.
  • Carmen Lucía Curcio Programa de Investigaciones en Gerontología y Geriatría, Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8063-2301
  • Andrés Fernando Giraldo Programa de Investigaciones en Gerontología y Geriatría, Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5891-4919
  • Fernando Gómez Programa de Investigaciones en Gerontología y Geriatría, Facultad de Ciencias para la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4360-8174

Referencias bibliográficas

Organización Mundial de la Salud. Informe mundial sobre el envejecimiento y la salud. Ginebra: OMS; 2015.

Fedesarrollo, Fundacion Saldarriga Concha. Misión Colombia Envejece. Retos y recomendaciones. Bogotá: Editorial Fundación Saldarriaga Concha; 2015.

Young Y, Frick KD, Phelan EA. Can successful aging and chronic illness coexist in the same individual? A multidimensional concept of successful aging. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2009;10:87-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2008.11.003

Bowling A, Dieppe P. What is successful ageing and who should define it? BMJ. 2005;331:1548-51. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.331.7531.1548

Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Successful aging 2.0: Conceptual expansions for the 21st century. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2015;70:593-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbv025

Cosco TD, Prina AM, Perales J, Stephan BCM, Brayne C. Lay perspectives of successful ageing: A systematic review and meta-ethnography. BMJ Open. 2013;3:e002710. https://doi.org/10.1136/ bmjopen-2013-002710

Lara J, Cooper R, Nissan J, Ginty AT, Khaw K-T, Deary IJ, et al. A proposed panel of biomarkers of healthy ageing. BMC Med. 2015;13:222. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0470-9

Depp CA, Jeste DV. Definitions and predictors of successful aging: A comprehensive review of larger quantitative studies. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14:6-20. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JGP.0000192501.03069.bc

Peel NM, McClure RJ, Bartlett HP. Behavioral determinants of healthy aging. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28:298-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.12.002

Kruse A, Schmitt E. Generativity as a route to active ageing. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2012;2012:647650. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/647650

Fry C. Healthy and successful aging: A public health mandate. An online clearinghouse focusing on the individual’s and the population’s health and successful aging. In: Successful Aging as a Cultural Domain. Athens, GA; University of Georgia; 2012. p. 1-17.

Fernández-Ballesteros R, Robine JM, Walker A, Kalache A. Active ageing: A global goal. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2013;2013:1-4. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/298012

Petretto DR, Pili R, Gaviano L, Matos-López C, Zuddas C. Envejecimiento activo y de éxito o saludable: una breve historia de modelos conceptuales. Rev Esp Ger y Ger. 2016;51:187-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regg.2015.10.003

Health Canada. Workshop on healthy aging: Aging and health practices. Otawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada; 2002.

Mount S, Lara J, Schols AM, Mathers JC. Towards a multidimensional healthy ageing phenotype. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016;19:418-26. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000318

Mathers JC, Deary IJ, Kuh D, Lord J, Khaw KT, Lara J, et al. Guidelines for biomarkers of healthy ageing. London: Medical Research Council; 2015. p. 1-93.

Kaeberlein M, Rabinovitch PS, Martin GM. Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine. Science. 2015;350:1191-3. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad3267

Lara J, Godfrey A, Evans E, Heaven B, Brown LJE, Barron E, et al. Towards measurement of the Healthy Ageing Phenotype in lifestyle-based intervention studies. Maturitas. 2013;76:189-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.07.007

Gómez F, Zunzunegui MV, Alvarado B, Curcio CL, Pirkle CM, Guerra R, et al. Cohort profile: The International Mobility In Aging Study (IMIAS). Int J Epidemiol. 2018;47:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy074

De Yébenes MJ, Otero A, Zunzunegui MV, Rodríguez-Laso A, Sánchez-Sánchez F, Del Ser T. Validation of a short cognitive tool for the screening of dementia in elderly people with low educational level. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18:925-36. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.947

Jaspers L, Schoufour JD, Erler NS, Darweesh SKL, Portegies ML, Sedaghat S, et al. Development of a healthy aging score in the population-based Rotterdam study: Evaluating age and sex differences. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017;18:276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.11.021

Michel JP, Sadana R. “Healthy Aging” concepts and measures. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017;18:460-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2017.03.008

Curcio C-L, Pineda A, Quintero P, Rojas A, Muñoz S, Gómez F. Successful aging in Colombia: The role of disease. Gerontol Geriatr Med. 2018;4:2333721418804052. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2333721418804052

Sousa AC, Zunzunegui MV, Li A, Phillips S, Guralnik J, Guerra R. Association between C-reactive protein and physical performance in older populations: Results from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Age Ageing. 2016;45:274-80. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afv202

Levitan EB, Song Y, Ford ES, Liu S. Is nondiabetic hyperglycemia a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2147-55. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.19.2147

de Souza JF, Pérez-Zepeda MU, Béland F, Guralnik JM, Zunzunegui MV, Guerra RO. Clinically relevant weakness in diverse populations of older adults participating in the International Mobility in Aging Study. Age (Dordr). 2016;38:25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-016-9888-z

Gómez JF, Curcio CL, Alvarado B, Zunzunegui MV, Guralnik J. Validity and reliability of the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB): A pilot study on mobility in the Colombian Andes. Colomb Med (Cali). 2013;44:165-71.

Ruiz-Grosso P, Loret de Mola C, Vega-Dienstmaier JM, Arévalo JM, Chávez K, Vilela A, et al. Validation of the Spanish Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales: A comparative validation study. PLoS One. 2012;7:e45413. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045413

Ahmed T, Belanger E, Vafaei A, Koné GK, Alvarado B, Béland F, et al. Validation of a social networks and support measurement tool for use in international aging research: The International Mobility in Aging Study. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2018;33:101-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10823-018-9344-x

Pérez-Zepeda MU, Belanger E, Zunzunegui M, Phillips S, Ylli A, Guralnik J. Assessing the validity of self-rated health with the short physical performance battery: A cross-sectional analysis of the international mobility in aging study. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0153855. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153855

Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Human aging: usual and successful. Science. 1987;237:143-9. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3299702

Baltes MM, Lang FR. Everyday functioning and successful aging: The impact of resources. Psychol Aging. 1997;12:433-43. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.12.3.433

Sanders JL, Minster RL, Barmada MM, Matteini AM, Boudreau RM, Christensen K, et al. Heritability of and mortality prediction with a longevity phenotype: The Healthy Aging Index. J Gerontol. 2014;69:479-85. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glt117

Vaillant G, Mukamal K. Successful aging. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;6:1-4. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.6.839

Guralnik JM, Kaplan GA. Predictors of healthy aging: Prospective evidence from the Alameda County Study. Am J Public Health. 1989;79:703-8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.79.6.703

White CM, St. John PD, Cheverie MR, Iraniparast M, Tyas SL. The role of income and occupation in the association of education with healthy aging: Results from a populationbased, prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1181. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2504-9

Fernández-Ballesteros R. Positive ageing. Objective, subjective, and combined outcomes. E-Journal Appl Psychol. 2011;7:22-30. https://doi.org/10.7790/ejap.v7i1.238

Peel N, Bartlett H, McClure R. Healthy ageing: How is it defined and measured? Australas J Ageing. 2004;23:115-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6612.2004.00035.x

Padayachee L, Rodseth RN, Biccard BM. A meta-analysis of the utility of C-reactive protein in predicting early, intermediate-term and long term mortality and major adverse cardiac events in vascular surgical patients. Anaesthesia. 2009; 64:416-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05786.x

Singh T, Newman AB. Inflammatory markers in population studies of aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2011;10:319-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2010.11.002

Idler EL, Kasl S V, Lemke JH. Self-evaluated health and mortality among the elderly in New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa and Washington Counties, Iowa, 1982-1986. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;131:91-103. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115489

Kaplan G, Strawbridge W, Camacho T, Cohen R. Factors associated with change in physical functioning in the elderly: A six-year prospective study. J Aging Health. 1993;5:140-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/089826439300500107

Jervelund SS, Malik S, Ahlmark N, Villadsen SF, Nielsen A, Vitus K. Morbidity, self-perceived health and mortality among non-western immigrants and their descendants in Denmark in a life phase perspective. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017;19: 448-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-016-0347-9

Tamayo-Fonseca N, Quesada JA, Nolasco A, Melchor I, Moncho J, Pereyra-Zamora P, et al. Self-rated health and mortality: A follow-up study of a Spanish population. Public Health. 2013;127:1097-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2013.09.003

Doane MJ, Elliott M. Religiosity and self-rated health: A longitudinal examination of their reciprocal effects. J Relig Health. 2016;55:844-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-015-0056-z

Lee Y. The predictive value of self assessed general, physical, and mental health on functional decline and mortality in older adults. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000;54:123-9. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.54.2.123

Gómez JF, Curcio CL, Matijasevic F. Autopercepción de salud, presencia de enfermedades y discapacidades en ancianos de Manizales. Rev Asoc Colomb Gerontol Geriatr. 2004;18:706-15.

Ocampo-Chaparro JM, Zapata-Ossa HJ, Cubides-Munévar ÁM, Curcio CL, Villegas JD, Reyes-Ortiz CA. Prevalence of poor self-rated health and associated risk factors among older adults in Cali, Colombia. Colomb Med. 2013;44:224-31.

Zapata-Ossa E. Autopercepción de salud en adultos mayores y desenlaces en salud física, mental y síndromes geriátricos, en Santiago de Cali. Rev Salud Pública. 2015;17:589-602. https://doi.org/10.15446/rsap.v17n4.36944

Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, Colciencias, Universidad del Valle, Universidad de Caldas. Encuesta SABE Colombia: Situación de Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en Colombia. Bogotá, D.C.: Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social; 2016.

Tampubolon G. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004-2013. Maturitas. 2016;88:9-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.03.002

Sadana R, Blas E, Budhwani S, Koller T, Paraje G. Healthy ageing: Raising awareness of inequalities, determinants, and what could be done to improve health equity. Gerontologist. 2016;56:S178-93. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnw034

Buckley NJ, Denton FT, Robb AL, Spencer BG. Healthy aging at older ages: Are income and education important? Can J Aging. 2004; 23:s155-69. https://doi.org/10.1353/cja.2005.0030

Ross CE, Wu C. The Links between education and health. Am Sociol Rev. 1995;60:719-45. https://doi.org/10.2307/2096319

Murrell SA, Meeks S. Psychological, economic, and social mediators of the education-health relationship in older adults. J Aging Health. 2002;14:527-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/089826402237182

Arias-Merino E, Mendoza-Ruvalcaba N, Arias-Merino M, Cueva-Contreras J, Vázquez-Arias C. Prevalence of successful aging in the elderly in western México. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2012;2012:460249. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/460249

Manzoli L, Villari P, Pirone G, Boccia A. Marital status and mortality in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64:77-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.031

Bryant LL, Corbett KK, Kutner JS. In their own words: A model of health aging. Soc Sci Med. 2001;53:927-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00392-0

Cómo citar
Curcio, C. L., Giraldo, A. F., & Gómez, F. (2020). Fenotipo de envejecimiento saludable de personas mayores en Manizales. Biomédica, 40(1), 102-116. https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.4799
Publicado
2020-03-01
Sección
Artículos originales